JavaScript Interview Questions and Answers: How to Ace Your Next Job Interview

Are you ready to take your career to the next level and land your dream job as a JavaScript developer? If so, then you need to be prepared to answer some tough interview questions during your job search.

JavaScript is one of the most popular programming languages in the world, and its demand is only increasing. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced developer, it is essential to have a good grasp of the language concepts and be aware of the common interview questions asked by employers.

In this article, we will provide you with a comprehensive list of JavaScript interview questions and answers that will help you to ace your next job interview.

What is JavaScript?

Before we begin with the interview questions, let us first understand what JavaScript is all about. JavaScript is a high-level, interpreted programming language that is widely used for creating interactive web applications.

It was first introduced in 1995 by Brendan Eich and is now an essential component for front-end web development. JavaScript is known for its dynamic nature, robustness, and versatility, which makes it a popular choice for developers around the world.

With that in mind, let us take a look at some of the most commonly asked interview questions for JavaScript developers.

JavaScript Interview Questions and Answers

Q1. What is the difference between 'undefined' and 'null' in JavaScript?

The undefined value is used to denote an unspecified property of an object or a variable, while null represents the intentional or explicit absence of any object value.

In JavaScript, null is considered an object, while undefined is not. Therefore, when comparing the two, null === undefined will always return false.

Q2. What are the different types of JavaScript data types?

The different types of JavaScript data types are:

  1. Primitive data types: string, number, boolean, null, and undefined.
  2. Complex data types: object and function.

Q3. How can you check if a variable is an array or not?

You can use the Array.isArray() method to check if a variable is an array or not. This method returns true if the variable is an array, and false if it is not.

let myArray = [1, 2, 3];
let isArray = Array.isArray(myArray);
console.log(isArray); // Output: true

Q4. What is closure in JavaScript, and how does it work?

A closure is an inner function that has access to the outer function's variables and parameters. Closure is created every time a function is created, and it allows data hiding, which makes it possible to write more efficient and secure code.

function outerFunction(x) {
  function innerFunction(y) {
    return x + y;
  return innerFunction;

let closure = outerFunction(10);
let result = closure(5);
console.log(result); // Output: 15

In the above example, the outerFunction creates a closure by returning the innerFunction. The innerFunction has access to the x parameter of the outerFunction, even after the outerFunction has finished executing.

Q5. What is hoisting in JavaScript, and how does it work?

Hoisting is a JavaScript mechanism where variables and function declarations are moved to the top of their respective scope before code execution. This means that you can use a variable or function before it has been declared.

However, variables initialized with the let and const keywords are not hoisted, and their use before declaration results in a ReferenceError.

console.log(hoistedVariable); // Output: undefined
var hoistedVariable = 10;

console.log(notHoistedVariable); // Output: ReferenceError
let notHoistedVariable = 20;

Q6. What is event bubbling in JavaScript, and how does it work?

Event bubbling is a mechanism of propagating an event from the child element to the parent element. Suppose a child element triggers an event, such as a click. In that case, the event propagates up the DOM tree, and each parent element can choose to handle the event.

<div id="parent">
  <div id="child">
    Click me!

  let childElement = document.getElementById('child');
  let parentElement = document.getElementById('parent');

  childElement.addEventListener('click', function () {
    console.log('Child element clicked!');

  parentElement.addEventListener('click', function () {
    console.log('Parent element clicked!');

In the above code, when you click on the child element, the click event will propagate up to the parent element. Both the child and parent elements have click event listeners registered, so both will be triggered. However, the child element's event handler will be triggered first, followed by the parent element's event handler.

Q7. What is the difference between 'let' and 'var' in JavaScript?

The let and var keywords are used to declare variables in JavaScript. However, there are some differences between the two.

Variables declared with let have block scope and cannot be accessed outside the block in which they are defined. On the other hand, variables declared with var have function scope and can be accessed outside the function in which they are defined.

function scopeExample() {
  if (true) {
    var x = 5;
    let y = 10;
  console.log(x); // Output: 5
  console.log(y); // Output: ReferenceError


In the above code, the x variable is declared using the var keyword and can be accessed outside the if block, whereas the y variable is declared using the let keyword and can only be accessed within the if block.

Q8. What is the difference between a synchronous and asynchronous function in JavaScript?

Synchronous functions will execute one at a time, in the order they are called. Asynchronous functions operate differently. They are non-blocking, which means they will not wait for the previous function to complete before executing the next one.

function synchronous() {
  console.log('Synchronous function start');
  console.log('Synchronous function end');

function asynchronous() {
  console.log('Asynchronous function start');
  setTimeout(function () {
    console.log('Asynchronous function end');
  }, 2000);


In the above code, the synchronous function is called first, followed by the asynchronous function. The synchronous function will execute entirely before the asynchronous function is called.

The asynchronous function uses the setTimeout method, which waits for two seconds before executing the callback function. This means that the asynchronous function will complete after the synchronous function.

Q9. What is the 'this' keyword in JavaScript, and how does it work?

The this keyword refers to the object on which a method or property is called. It is a reference to the calling context, and its value depends on how a function is called.

let myObject = {
  x: 10,
  calculate: function (y) {
    console.log(this.x + y);

myObject.calculate(5); // Output: 15

In the above code, the calculate method is called on the myObject object using the dot notation. Inside the calculate method, this.x refers to the x property of the myObject object.

Q10. How can you handle errors in JavaScript?

JavaScript has a built-in try...catch statement used to catch errors that occur during the execution of code. Any code that produces an error can be wrapped in a try block, which will catch the error and prevent the code from crashing the entire application.

function divide(x, y) {
  try {
    if (y === 0) {
      throw new Error('Cannot divide by zero!');
    return x / y;
  } catch (error) {

let result = divide(10, 0); // Output: Cannot divide by zero!

In the above code, the divide function tries to divide x by y. If y is equal to 0, an error is thrown instead of trying to divide by zero.

The catch block catches the error and logs its message to the console. This way, the entire application does not crash, and the user is provided with a meaningful error message.


JavaScript is a powerful and versatile language, and its popularity continues to grow. As a developer, it is essential to have an understanding of the language concepts and be prepared for the interview questions that may come your way.

In this article, we have provided you with a comprehensive list of JavaScript interview questions and answers that will help you to ace your next job interview. Go ahead and use these questions to improve your knowledge of the language and take your career to the next level!

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